Frequently Asked Questions

What are mycorrhizae?
Mycorrhizae are mutualistic symbioses vital to the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. This symbiosis involves a close association between roots of a mycorrhizal host plant and the hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi. Most terrestrial plants depend on mycorrhizae for uptake of many soil minerals; thus their establishment, growth, reproduction and survival are mycorrhiza dependent.

What is the importance of a mycorrhiza assessment?
Presence of mycorrhizal fungi may indicate a healthy substrate or system where the plants are growing. Absence of mycorrhizal fungi in plants that depend on mycorrhiza could require extra care in their development. Mycorrhizal assessments can give you a clear indication on the need of mycorrhiza inoculation or management in your systems (greenhouse, nurseries or land) therefore maximizing your investment.

Mycorrhizal inoculation and management are currently an important practices in tree and plant nurseries, plant restoration or land reclamation, orchards, vineyards, and lands where many vegetables and crops are grown. Farmers and plant growers, environmental consultants, golf course superintendents, landscape architects, and private landowners can benefit tremendously by using and/or managing mycorrhizal fungi.

Scientific References

Amaranthus, M. 2001. Mycorrhizae and Turfgrass: A biological tool improves establishment, growth, disease and drought resistance of golf turf grasses

Koske, R. E., J. N. Gemma, and N. Jackson. 1995. Importance of mycorrhiza on putting greens
USGA Green Section Record – Nov./Dec.

Koske, R. E., J. N. Gemma, and N. Jackson. 1997.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associated with three species of turfgrass
Canadian Journal of Botany 75:320-332.

Koske, R. E., J. N. Gemma, and N. Jackson. 1997.
A preliminary survey of mycorrhizal fungi in putting greens.  
Journal of Turfgrass Science 73:2-8.

Koske, R. E., and J. N. Gemma. 1997.
Mycorrhizae and succession in plantings of beachgrass in sand dunes
American Journal of Botany 84:118-130.

Gemma, J. N., R. E. Koske, E. M. Roberts, and N. Jackson. 1997.
Enhanced establishment of bentgrasses by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
Journal of Turfgrass Science 73: 9-14.

Gemma, J. N., R. E. Koske, E. M. Roberts, N. Jackson, and K. De Antonis. 1997.
Mycorrhizal fungi improve drought resistance in creeping bentgrass.
Journal of Turfgrass Science 73: 15-29.

Gemma, J. N., and R. E. Koske. 1997. Arbuscular mycorrhizae in sand dune plants of the North Atlantic coast of the U.S.: Field and greenhouse studiesJournal of Environmental Management 50:251-264.

van Rooyen, M., A. Valentine, E. Archer. Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: Can it improve the survival of young vines?Wynboer – A technical guide to wine producers from South Africa. Oct. 2002.